- support or refute the view that student should be required to take a course in cyberethics; and apply the seven steps (in Section 3.8) to your argument.Please elaborate (beyond a yes or no answer) and provide your rationale in support of your responses (comprehension)
- Using appropriate components construct an argument for or against the view that privacy protection should be improved in e-commerce transactions.Next evaluate your arguments against the rules for valid, inductive, and fallacious arguments.Does your argument contain any of the common or “informal” fallacies?If so, elaborate. Please elaborate (beyond a yes or no answer) and provide your rationale in support of your responses (knowledge)
3.8 A SEVEN-STEP STRATEGY FOR EVALUATING ARGUMENTS
The following strategy, which consists of seven steps, summarizes the techniques we used
in Sections 3.3–3.7 to evaluate an argument’s overall strength of reasoning:
Step 1. Convert the argument into standard form. (List the premises, followed by the
Step 2. Test the argument for its strength of reasoning to see whether it is valid or
Strategy: Assume the premises to be true, and ask yourself whether the
conclusion must also be true when those premises are assumed true. Is a
counterexample to the argument possible?
Step 3. Is the argument valid?
If yes, go to Step 4.
If no, go to Step 5.
Step 4. Is the (valid) argument also sound? That is, are the premises true in the actual
Strategy: To determine whether a claim is true or false in the actual world,
see the guidelines in Appendix G (available at www.wiley.com/college/
a. If the argument is valid and if all of the premises are true in the actual world,
then the argument is also sound.
b. If the argument is valid, but one or more premises can be shown to be false,
then the argument is unsound. (Note that if one or more premises are unable
to be verified, i.e., determined to be either true or false, then the overall
argument is inconclusive.)
Step 5. Is the (invalid) argument inductive or fallacious?
Strategy: To determine this, ask how likely the conclusion would be true when
the premises are assumed true.
a. If the conclusion would likely be true because the premises are assumed
true (i.e., the evidence for the conclusion is strong), the argument is
b. If the conclusion would not likely be true even when the premises are
assumed true, the argument is fallacious.
Note: Keep in mind that a fallacious argument can be made up of individual
claims or statements that are themselves true in the actual world.
Step 6. Determine whether the premises in your argument are either true or false in the
Strategy: Consult the guidelines for determining the truth or falsity of state-
ments in Appendix G, available at www.wiley.com/college/tavani.
Step 7. Make an overall assessment of the argument by determining both (a) the
argument’s strength of reasoning (valid, inductive, or fallacious) and (b) the
truth conditions of each of the argument’s premises.
Strategy: Determine, for example, whether the argument’s overall strength is
– valid but unsound
– inductive with all true premises,
– inductive with some false premises,
– fallacious with a mixture of true and false premises,
– some other combination.