(Sample of lesson plan)
Counting by Tens
Introduction: Thank goodness we only need two feet to Walk Across Texas! If we were crabs, we would need ten! In this lesson, students will listen as the teacher reads a counting by feet book in which the ten-footed crab is the star. Students will also create their own crab, which they will use to learn to count by tens.
Grade Level and Subject: First Grade Math and Language Arts
TEKS: Math: 1a, 1b, 1d, 3a, 4a, 4b, 11a, 11c, 11d
Language Arts: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 3c, 4a, 4c, 13a, 13b
dessert-size paper plates (one for each student)
blue tempera paint
red or white pipe cleaners (each student will need 2 full length and four halves)
black beans or beads
10 unlined index cards. Write 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 (one on each card) in a bold color. Decorate the back of the cards with sea drawings or stickers. If you have more than 20 students, you will have to adjust the number of cards accordingly by repeating some of the above numbers.
Resources: One Is a Snail, Ten Is a Crab by April Pulley Sayre and Jeff Sayre,
Scroll down and click on “Florida Blue Crab.” If the teacher chooses to extend the lesson, this site gives instructions and materials for students to “draw” a crab using tempera paints and their handprints.
Activity: Ask students how many feet each of them has. Ask if all creatures have two feet. Ask for examples. Tell students that crabs have ten feet, and they (the students) will be making their own crabs and learning how to count by tens. Allow students to paint and glue their paper plates (see “Instructions for Making a Crab” below).
While the glue is drying, read aloud One Is a Snail, Ten Is a Crab, allowing for questions and discussion. After finishing the book, go back to the page that begins “10 is a Crab” and instruct students to read along as you flip the page to “20 is two crabs” then “30 is three crabs,” etc. until you get to “100 is ten crabs.” Repeat this process to give students practice counting in tens. Then have students count in tens without the crabs.
Allow students to finish making their crabs. When all students are finished, divide them into groups of two. Using the index cards like playing cards, have a pair of students “draw” a card. Instruct them not to let the rest of the class see their card. Instruct the pair to collect the correct number of crabs from their classmates so that the number of legs equals the number on the card. Have the pair set the crabs in a pre-designated place (a table in the center of the room, the lip of the blackboard, etc.) so the class can see. Ask students to raise their hands if they can tell the class the number on the card. Choose a student to answer. Have the class count by tens as you point to each crab to verify the answer. Return the crabs to the students. Repeat this process with other pairs of students until all of the index cards are gone.
Instructions for Making a Crab: Paint the outside of the paper plate blue. When the paint is dry, cover the white side of plate with glue, and fold it in half. Allow the glue to dry. On both ends of the folded edge—about ½ inch from the fold—punch two holes about an inch apart. Punch six holes along the rounded edge—three on either side, leaving a space in the middle. Cut four pipe cleaners in half. Insert the pipe cleaner halves through the eight holes (leave the two at the top of the rounded edge for pinchers); double and twist to make eight legs. Make sure the ends are twisted smoothly. Using the full length pipe cleaners, do the same for the two last two holes but leave the two ends open in a ‘v’ shape to represent the pinchers. Glue two black beans on the “shell” for the eyes.
Evaluation: Students should be able to count by tens to 100 at the conclusion of this lesson. Observe students for participation in counting. Observe and evaluate listening skills.
Modifications for a Blind Student (Sally):
Sally will have all of her painting supplies and art supplies on a tray so that she can find all items. Her paint will have sand in it, so that when it dries it will have some texture.
Sally will have a buddy assigned to work with her during the crab making project to help her construct her crab. She will have a plastic toy crab made available to her so that she can feel what a crab is like prior to making her own crab.
Sally and her buddy will have cards with the numbers written on they (for her friend with normal vision) and also with holes punched in them for Sally to feel. For example a card with the number 10 written on it will also have 10 holes punched in it for Sally to feel.
Sally and her buddy will go around the room collecting the correct number of crabs with her buddy leading her using sighted guide.
Resources for children with Visual Impairments:
http://www.afb.org/–Article-Educating Students With Visual Impairments for Inclusion in Society. A Paper On The Inclusion Of Students With Visual Impairments
American Foundation for the Blind http://www.afb.org/ —Click on the Information section and check the articles listed under Education. The Bookstore features AFB’s excellent publications.
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired www.tsbvi.edu – A rich source of information for teachers of the visually impaired. Subscribe to an electronic version of See/Hear Newsletter, download a dictionary of eye conditions, browse the list of vision-related links.
Division on Visual Impairments, Council for Exceptional Children http://www.cecdvi.org/ – The section with position papers on professional practice, curriculum, and adaptations for students with visual impairments may be of interest.
Blindness Resource Center, New York Institute for Special Education www.nyise.org/blind.htm – Lots of information about blindness, links to resources, organizations, etc.
Disability Resources on the Internet, Disability Resources Monthly www.disabilityresources.org – The most comprehensive source of information on disabilities in general. Click on the section entitled Disabilities-Specific, and select Blindness and Visual Impairments.