Question 1: The initial stage of cognitive development, defined as dualism by Perry (1968/1999), is defined by Thoma (1993) as: “characterized by a view that objective and immutable answers exist for most questions and that authorities or experts know or can discover the eternal truths. The dualism, students hold a black or white, right or wrong, view of the world and have little tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. Knowledge is regarded as timeless and absolute. Learning is viewed as a process of the transmission of facts and truths from the teacher to the student” (p. 129).
Paul and Elder (2014) refer to habitual thinking as biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, and often downright prejudiced. Everyone is biased. A person’s view is always partial, partisan, and problematic (Eisenberg et al., 2014).
Write a 250- to 300-word response to the following:
- How can you retarget the mechanism you use to identify bias in others and to identify bias in yourself?
- What is the experience of switching perspectives like for you?
- How fully are you able to inhabit the perspective of another?
- What barriers prevent you from letting go of your own worldview
Question 2:Write a 250- to 300-word response to the following:
- Define and discuss Brookfield’s 4 lenses.
- Describe how viewing a situation through each of Brookfield’s 4 lenses affects your perspective on a topic you are passionate about.